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Me Elton John. Atomic Habits James Clear. Educated Tara Westover. Normal People Sally Rooney. The Body Bill Bryson. Blue Moon Lee Child. Dear Zoo Rod Campbell. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire J. Their annual cattlecrossing festivals may include initiations, matchmakings, and other social events [ 53 ]. They are farmers and retain strong traditional religious beliefs [ 54 ]. They speak over 40 different dialects; some so unrelated that they could be considered separate languages [ 53 ]. They live mostly in eastern Mali along the Niger River where they were originally fishers and later, farmers.
They are descendants of the last ancient West African empire, the Songhai Empire, which controlled much of present-day Mali and parts of Niger [ 55 ]. They are traditionally nomadic peoples who also reside in neighboring countries. They speak Tamashek which is a Berber language, distinct from other languages spoken in Mali. Since losing their camel herds to the French rulers, Tuareg groups have rebelled periodically against state authority in the south. To the west and into Mauritania are the Maure, also known as Moors. These Muslim peoples of Berber-Arabic descent speak the Semitic language of Hassanya Arabic, which is also the official language of neighboring Mauritania [ 45 ].
Apart from African language mentioned above with their respective speakers, French is the official language of the Republic of Mali, the written language of government and business in spite of the fact that French speakers are a small part of the population, concentrated in urban areas. These numbers mask the blending of traditional beliefs and practices with Islam or Christianity that is common to most Malians. Its major economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, trade, tourism and to some extent manufacturing industry. There is also livestock production which mostly includes livestock cattle, goats, and sheep [ 45 ].
Mining is also another significant economic activity in Mali. There are also other minerals such as Phosphates, silver, gypsum, and salt. The other major economic activity is trade despite the fact that Mali typically records an annual trade deficit. Mali and other West African cotton producers continue to struggle in the world market [ 62 ].
Import partners such as France, China, the United States, and Canada provide machinery, equipment, and processed products such as petroleum oils, cement, chemical fertilizers, and medicines [ 61 ]. In , tourism was 4.
Processing agricultural products, including food meat and sugar , textiles, plant oils, and soaps, is the primary industrial activity and it is mostly concentrated in Bamako, the capital [ 45 ]. Resolving the crisis has been made more difficult by the number of actors and groups involved. According to observers the roots of the current crisis in Mali have to be sought in the complexities of political factors that were identified with colonial heritages, particularly issues of political integration in the face of diverse ethnic dynamics as well as the trend of democratic development within the nation and background developments associated with the emergence of different religious groups in the northern part of the country.
From the very beginning of Malian nation hood the nomadic population, particularly the Tuaregs were not ready to be integrated in to the emerging nation. Consequently they felt marginalized in subsequent political developments that ended up in setting a new nation by the name Mali.
This situation has been made worse by global economic developments and the structural demands placed on the country by donor nations. There were uprisings in the Tuareg-inhabited northern part of the country as far back as the s, which had much to do with the close ethnic ties between the people there and those of the border regions, including those of Niger [ 64 ]. In fact the Tuareg nomads were in struggle for autonomy since the days of establishment of French colonialism in the region in the 20th Century.
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The Tuareg people have consistently wanted selfindependence and in pursuit of such goals have engaged in a number of rebellions. The first was in when, in response to the French not giving the Tuareg their own autonomous zone called Azawad as was promised, they revolted. The French violently quelled the revolt and subsequently confiscated important grazing lands while using Tuaregs as forced conscripts and labor and fragmented Tuareg societies through the drawing of arbitrary boundaries between Soudan Mali and its neighbors.
Yet, this did not end the Tuareg goal of an independent, sovereign state. Once the Mali attained independence, the Tuareg began to push toward their dream of establishing Azawad again with several prominent Tuareg leaders lobbying for a separate Tuareg homeland consisting of northern Mali and parts of modern day Algeria, Niger, Mauritania. As the result according to observers conventionally there were three major consecutive rebellions launched by the Tuaregs prior to the current crisis.
Developing a thesis statement
The Tuareg felt greatly oppressed by the government of Modibo Keita, which came into power after the French had left, as they were discriminated, and were more neglected than others in the distribution of state benefits, which could be manifested by the fact that most of the senior leadership of post-colonial Mali were drawn from the southern ethnic groups who were not sympathetic to the pastoral culture of the northern desert nomads. The government of Keita was introducing soviet style collective farms together with state owned corporations to monopolize the purchase of basic crops. Nevertheless the government guaranteed the unchanging nature of the customary land rights except the land is needed by the state for development works.
Unfortunately for the Tuareg, this unchanging of customary land rights did not apply to the subsoil that was on their land. Consequently the Minister of Rural Economy issued a decree of acquisition and registration in the name of the state, with prior publication of notice and a hearing to determine customary claims [ 66 ]. The above developments finally triggered a turmoil that eventually became the first Tuareg rebellion, which began with small hit-and-run attacks on government forces. However, it was quickly crushed due to the Tuareg lacking a unified leadership, a well-coordinated strategy or clear evidence of a coherent strategic vision.
In addition to this, the rebels were unable to mobilize the entire Tuareg community. In contrary the Malian military, well-equipped with new Soviet weapons, conducted vigorous counterinsurgency operations. It then placed the Tuareg-populated northern regions under a repressive military administration [ 67 ]. To avoid the military occupation of their communities, as well as due to massive drought in the s, many Tuareg fled to nearby countries such as Algeria, Mauritania, and Libya.
Thus, the grievances of the Tuareg went unaddressed, only creating a situation in which a rebellion would once again occur. Three decades after the first rebellion, the occupation of Tuareg communities still had not ended and resentment fueled by the harsh repression, continued dissatisfaction with government policies, and perceived exclusion from political power led various Tuareg and Arab groups to begin a second rebellion against the Malian government.